realref.ru

Wish + Object Clause


tipi-magnetikov-dia-para-ferromagnetiki-i-obyasnenie-ih-povedeniya-v-mp.html
tipi-makroekonomicheskogo-regulirovaniya.html
tipi-malih-innovacionnih-predpriyatij.html
tipi-malyunkv-dlya-vikonannya-laboratornih-robt.html

On the East Side

The East Side is the part of New York City lying to the east of Fifth Avenue, where the world's richest residential district, the Upper East Side, is situated.

STRUCTURAL PATTERNS

... he wished it could be more affable.

The predicate verb in object clauses dependent on the verb to wish describes an unreal situation.

I wish I had'gone to that concert. Жаль, что я не пошла на этот концерт.

The tense form of the predicate verb in the object clause shows the relations between the actions expressed in the principal clause and in the subordinate (object) clause:

a) The Past Indefinite shows that the action in the subordinate clause is simultaneous with that of the principal clause.

He wished he knew more about his fellow-students. Он хотел бы больше знать о своих однокурсниках.

b) The Past Perfect shows that the action of the subordinate clause is prior to that of the principal clause.

You will wish you had controlled yourself and answered all his questions. Вы пожалеете, что не сдержались и не ответили на все его вопросы.

Note: The same rules hold true for the use of tense forms in clauses of comparison introduced by as if, as though.

He looked at me as if he didn't believe a word of what I was saying. Он смотрел на меня так, как будто не верил ни одному слову из того, что я говорил.
You speak as if you had read a lot on the problem. Вы говорите так, как будто много читали по этому вопросу.

с) When the action of the subordinate clause follows that of the principal clause the predicate in the subordinate clause is generally expressed by could or might + infinitive.

Erik wished he could (might) start working immediately. Эрику хотелось бы начать работу немедленно.

Would + infinitive may be found in the subordinate clause only if the subjects in the clauses are different. It makes the wish more emphatic.

I wish spring would come soon. Хорошо бы скорее пришла весна.

The use of would + infinitive often implies that the person expressed by the subject of the subordinate clause does not want to perform the action.

I wish he would tell me everything. Как бы мне хотелось, чтобы он мне все рассказал.

Note: The verb to be may have the form were for all persons singular and plural. The form were is traditionally termed the Past Subjunctive.

I wish it were true (or: I wish it was true). Жаль, что это неправда (как бы мне хотелось, чтобы это было правдой).

Note: As all the forms of the predicate verb in object clauses (after the verb to wish) denote unreal actions they very often serve as expressions of regret rather than wish and are accordingly translated into Russian by the expression жаль, the verb сожалеть etc.



I wish I had the book, (a) Жаль, что у меня нет этой книги.
I wish I had told her about it. (a) Жаль, что я не сказал ей об этом.
I wished Thomas hadn't brought me here, (b) Я сожалел, что Томас привел меня сюда.

If the verb in the object clause is affirmative in English, it is negative in Russian (a) and vice versa (b).

2. Must, may, can + Perfect or Continuous Infinitive

... Gorin must have been tortured for a moment by...

The modal verbs must, may, can used with the perfect or continuous infinitive express various degrees of supposition, i. e. probability, doubt, incredulity.

a) The verb must in such cases expresses a high degree of supposition, almost certainty. The Russian equivalents are должно быть, вероятно.

He must have worked the whole summer. He looks tired. Он, должно быть, работал все лето. Он выглядит усталым.

Note: The verb must in this meaning is not used with the particle not. To express negation lexical means are used.

He must have been out when I rang him up. Его, должно быть, не было дома, когда я позвонила ему.
Evidently he did not know anything about it. Он, должно быть, ничего не знал об этом.

b) The verb may expresses uncertainty as to the fulfilment of an action, state or occurrence, supposition implying doubt. The Russian equivalents are возможно, может быть.

She may be staying with her friends at a place they have in Moscow. Она, возможно, гостит у своих друзей в Москве.
Don't be angry with him. He may not have known about it. Не сердись на него. Он, может быть, ничего об этом не знал.

с) The verb can expresses doubt (in interrogative sentences) or incredulity (in negative sentences). The Russian equivalents are неужели, не может быть.

Can she have told a lie? Неужели она сказала неправду?
She can't be lying! Не может быть, чтобы она лгала!

The form of the infinitive shows the time reference of the action. The perfect infinitive is used when the action refers to the past, the continuous infinitive refers the action to the present.

She must have done some research work in this field. Должно быть, она занималась исследовательской работой в этой области.
She must be doing some research work in this field. Должно быть, она занимается исследовательской работой в этой области.

3. Used to

I used to laugh all the time.

Used to expresses recurrent actions or typical states in the past; it implies contrast between the present and the past - what was typical of the past is no longer true at present.

This kind of house used to cost £ 4,000. Такой дом когда-то стоил 4 000 фунтов.
He used to come here every other day. Он, бывало, приходил сюда через день.

Note: Would do can also denote recurrent actions in the past but its use is stylistically restricted.

4. Now (that)

Now that I'm safe, it's almost as though nothing had happened.

The conjunction now that (also without that) means as, considering that, in view of the fact that... The Russian equivalents are теперь, когда..., раз... .

Now (that) you are well again, you may return to your studies. Раз вы здоровы, вы можете приступить опять к занятиям.

VOCABULARY

1. Fox rose to shake hands.

to shake vt

a) cause to move from side to side, up and down, etc - трясти to shake a rug - трясти, вытряхивать ковер

to shake smb by the shoulder - трясти кого-л. за плечо

to shake one's head (at) - качать головой (в знак несогласия, сомнения, укоризны, неодобрения и т. п.)

to shake one's finger (fist) at smb - грозить кому-л. пальцем, кулаком

to shake hands (with smb), to shake smb's hand - пожать кому-л. руку, обменяться рукопожатием

Не shook hands with me and thanked me heartily. Он пожал мне руку и сердечно поблагодарил меня.
We shook hands and I left. Мы обменялись рукопожатием, и я ушел.

b) shock, trouble - потрясать, волновать

They were badly shaken by the news. Они были потрясены этим известием.

2. ... the quick eyes would have been amazed at...

to amaze vt - поражать, изумлять, удивлять

Syn: to surprise, to astonish. The three verbs differ in degree.

To surprise is the general term. It means to impress somebody unexpectedly.

Their gift greatly surprised and pleased her. Их подарок очень удивил и обрадовал ее.

То astonish is to surprise as greatly and suddenly as to seem incredible.

He astonished his friends by his sudden departure. Он чрезвычайно удивил своих друзей внезапным отъездом.

То amaze, though it carries the idea of great astonishment, stresses rather bewilderment, perplexity, or wonder.

I was amazed at the breadth of their interests. Я была поражена широтой их интересов.

All three verbs are commonly used in passive constructions followed by an infinitive or a prepositional object (generally with the preposition at).

I was not at all surprised to hear her answer. I knew her only too well. Я совсем не удивилась, услышав ее ответ. Я ее слишком хорошо знала.
We were surprised at finding the house empty. Мы удивились, обнаружив, что в доме никого не было.
I was astonished to discover that what he had told me was a lie. Я был изумлен, обнаружив, что то, что он сказал мне, было неправдой.
I am amazed at his outrageous behaviour. He has always been : such a quiet young fellow. Я поражена (не знаю, что и думать) его возмутительным поведением. Он всегда был таким спокойным.

Thus, we are surprised at what is unexpected, astonished when we find it hard to believe, and amazed when we are struck by something so strange, unusual that we cannot (of do not want to) believe it.

Note the nouns and adjectives corresponding to the verbs: surprise n - surprising a; astonishment n - astonishing a; amazement n - amazing a.

3. ... amazed at any expression of sympathy

sympathy n (for) - сочувствие

He felt sympathy for the young man (felt sorry for him). Он посочувствовал молодому человеку.

to sympathize т (with smb) - сочувствовать кому-л.

We all sympathized with the poor girl when we heard that she had lost her parents. Мы все сочувствовали бедной девушке, когда услышали, что она потеряла родителей.

4. ... he might make a poor impression ...

to make a poor (good, great, favourable) impression (on) - производить плохое (хорошее, огромное, благоприятное) впечатление

The speech made a strong impression on the House. Речь произвела сильное впечатление в палате общин.

The verb to make enters into a number of phraseological units:

to make friends (with) - подружиться

He made friends with the utmost ease. Он легко заводил друзей.

to make fun of - высмеивать, дразнить, подшучивать, шутить

"Don't make fun of me," she pleaded. "Don't laugh at me." "He дразни меня, не смейся надо мной", - просила она.

to make (both) ends meet - сводить концы с концами

After he had lost his job the family could hardly make (both) ends meet. После того, как он потерял работу, семья едва сводила концы с концами.

5. Naturally we're expecting you

to expect vt

a) feel sure that somebody or something will come and be waiting - ждать, ожидать

We expected him for dinner, but he did not come. Мы ждали его к обеду, но он не пришел.

b) think, believe or hope that something will happen - рассчитывать, надеяться